Lentivirus is a viral vector modified from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). With RNA as genome, lentivirus has a strong ability to infect dividing and non-dividing cells, and owns the characteristics of wide host range, large gene capacity, integration into host genome, and long-term continuous expression. Currently, Chimeric Antigen Receptor T (CAR-T) cells are mostly prepared by transduction of T lymphocytes using lentiviral vector.
Retrovirus is a class of RNA viruses whose genetic information is stored in RNA instead of DNA. Different from other RNA viruses, retroviral RNA is incapable of self-replication. After entering host cells, retroviral RNA is synthesized into double-stranded DNA by reverse transcriptase, and double-stranded DNA is integrated into host cell chromosome DNA by integrase to form proviruses, which can establish lifelong infection and be transmitted to progeny cells along with the division of host cells.
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a kind of parvovirus that cannot replicate autonomously. With single strand DNA as genome , AAV is able to infect dividing and non-dividing cells, and owns the characteristics of diverse serotypes, low immunogenicity, wide range of host cells, strong diffusion ability and long expression time in vivo.
Wide range of hosts: Both dividing to non-dividing cells can be infected, covering all types of cells, especially suitable for cells with low efficiency in plasmid vector transfection
High transduction efficiency: No transfection reagents needed, greatly improves the probability of target gene integration into the host cell genome
High expression level and good stability: The integrated exogenous genes exhibit high and stable expression level.
Wide range of host: Retroviral vector has wide transfection spectrum and can infect a variety of animal cell types, including human
High transduction efficiency: Retroviral vector is able to infect a large number of cells at one time, with the transfection rate up to 100%
High integration rate: Transfected genes can be accurately integrated into the host cell genome in single or in few copies
High stability: Retroviral vector can be effectively expressed in cells for a long time.
Strong specificity: AAV virus has common serotypes, and different serotypes correspond to different organs, with high recognition and infection ability
High safety: AAV has not been found to cause disease in human body
Low immunogenicity: Infected cells are less likely to be cleared by the immune system
Wide spectrum of infection: AAV is able to infect almost all cells at the dividing and non-dividing stages
Long expression time: AAV forms free body (episome) in host cells, which exists in the nucleus and can be expressed continuously for over 5 months.
High stability: AAV has high stability at -20°C, so it is easy to transport
Partial results display
Comparison of different virus systems
Specific gene expression,
Various serotypes such as 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10
Specific gene expression
Service cycle of different virus systems